Bitter taste receptors (TAS2R proteins) allow mammals to detect and avoid ingestion of toxins in food. Thus, TAS2Rs play an important role in food choice and are subject to complex natural selection pressures. In our previous study, we examined nucleotide variation in TAS2R38, a gene expressing bitter taste receptor for phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), in 333 Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) from .Responsible Supply Chain Basic Concept Konica Minolta is committed to fulfilling its social responsibility not only in terms of its own products but also throughout the supply chain,* based on relationships of trust with suppliers.